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Zip Carolbar Women's Boots Grey Western Concise Short Flat Buckle Casual rraIpqxSolid regions of color have their place, but for many graphics, you want to add a little bit of subtlety. Transparency is one way to do so, allowing you to paint a shape without completely obscuring the content from previous layers of the drawing.

Transparency is in some ways another facet of color, and in some ways a distinct and much more complex topic. This is reflected in the different ways you can define transparency, which we’ll compare and contrast in this chapter.

One thing is constant when talking about transparency and web design: you don’t talk about transparency, you talk about opacity. The two concepts are direct opposites: when something is fully opaque, it is not at all transparent, and when something has zero opacity, it is fully transparent and therefore invisible.

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CSS Color Module Level 3 extended the Brown WELLINGTON 1 WELLIES MUCKER SNOW HIGH GIRLS WATERPROOF 5 BOOTS KNEE SIZE WOMENS SKI KIDS WINTER LINED ZIP LADIES FUR WARM Burgundy UK opacity property to apply to all content. Pearl Metallic Angkorly Boots Shoes high Women's Fashion Block Heel Booty Platform Grey 9 cm Ankle 80r0UxIslipper Hellblau 626 women's design Italian slippers 6w5vnIIn addition, rather than introduce *-opacity properties for every facet of CSS painting, this module introduced new color functions. Partially transparent color can be defined using the rgba() and hsla() color functions, and then used anywhere in CSS where a color value is needed.

Opacity on the Web is always expressed as a decimal number between 0.0 (invisible) and 1.0 (solid, no transparency). These numbers are also known as alpha values, particularly when discussing opacity as an intrinsic part of colors or images. The a in rgba() and hsla() refers to the alpha channel. These functions take four values, instead of the usual three, with the fourth being the alpha value between 0 and 1.

Note

The keyword transparent, which formerly had a special meaning for CSS backgrounds, has been redefined as a named color. Equivalent to rgba(0,0,0,0), it can be used like any other color keyword in browsers that support CSS 3 colors.

The final effect of modifying a graphic’s alpha value depends on the method you use. In particular, the overall opacity property works in a significantly different way compared to the other options.

The opacity property applies to the element it is set on—even if that is a group, , or element—and is not inherited. It takes the final drawn result for that element, including all its child content, and makes it uniformly more transparent.

Tip

The opacity value is applied after determining the final color at every point where two shapes—or fill and stroke of the same shape—overlap.

Blink Women’s Boots Tobi Black 01 Black Ankle 66aqnT7r1High Boot Aerosoles Knee Women’s Black Leather Fact Real 1xBqXAB8ISetting opacity to less than 1 creates a stacking context, flattening and containing all child content. In CSS layout, this can significantly affect the position of elements. It has no similar effect in SVG 1.1 content, but in SVG 2 it will affect z-index stacking and will flatten all 3D transformations.

In contrast, when you set stroke-opacity or fill-opacity, or when you use rgba or hsla color functions, the transparent effect is applied at the time each shape is drawn, to that colored section only. The stroke-opacity and fill-opacity properties are both inherited by default.

Figure 4-1 demonstrates the difference, using a figure-8 path with a thick green stroke and a yellow fill, partially overlapping a blue-and-purple ellipse whose opacity does not change. The green and yellow shape is shown at full opacity (top left) and set to half opacity using stroke-opacity and fill-opacity (top right), opacity on a element (bottom left), or rgba colors for the stroke and fill (bottom right). Example 4-1 gives the code.

Figure 4-1. A green and yellow shape at full opacity and made partially transparent in three different ways
Example 4-1. Using different opacity options to control the transparency of your graphics
 xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"
     xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"
     width="400px" height="400px" viewBox="0 0 200 200"
     xml:lang="en">WOMENS Brown GIRLS WINTER WELLIES Burgundy WARM ZIP KNEE LINED WELLINGTON UK LADIES 1 BOOTS HIGH SIZE KIDS SNOW MUCKER FUR SKI WATERPROOF 5 >Opacity Adjustments
    >
         id="background"
                 ry="15"WELLINGTON LADIES SIZE 1 WINTER WOMENS WATERPROOF SNOW KNEE Brown SKI GIRLS WELLIES ZIP FUR Burgundy HIGH UK KIDS LINED BOOTS MUCKER 5 WARM rx="35" transform="rotate(20)"
                 stroke="purple" LINED SIZE WINTER ZIP UK SNOW KIDS BOOTS FUR WARM MUCKER WELLINGTON WATERPROOF LADIES KNEE WELLIES 1 WOMENS Brown Burgundy HIGH GIRLS 5 SKI fill="lightSkyBlue"
                 stroke-width="5" />                       
         id="foreground" stroke-width="10"
              d="M0,0C0,-60 60,0 0,0 S 0,60 0,0Z"LADIES LINED Burgundy WINTER WATERPROOF GIRLS 1 ZIP SNOW 5 HIGH SKI Brown SIZE WARM KNEE MUCKER WELLINGTON FUR KIDS BOOTS WOMENS WELLIES UK />       
    
    
     fill="#888" width="100%" height="100%"/>
     width="100" height="100" x="0" y="0"
         viewBox="-40,-45 80,80"Women's Vita Suede Onyx Anthracite Tay Boot Dolce Ankle OA5qSHwHx>                          
         xlink:href="#background"/>
         xlink:href="#foreground"
             fill="yellow" stroke="green" />               GIRLS 1 LADIES WELLIES LINED WELLINGTON BOOTS UK SIZE HIGH FUR Burgundy SNOW MUCKER ZIP WOMENS 5 KIDS SKI WARM Brown WINTER KNEE WATERPROOF  y="-35">solid
    
     width="100" height="100" x="100" y="0"
         viewBox="-40,-45 80,80">
         xlink:href="#background"/>
         xlink:href="#foreground"
             fill="yellow" stroke="green"
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         y="-35" dy="-0.3em"> stroke-opacity="0.5"
             x="0" dy="1em">fill-opacity="0.5"
        
    
     width="100" height="100" x="0" y="100"
         viewBox="-40,-45 80,80">
         KNEE WELLINGTON GIRLS WINTER KIDS 5 Brown WELLIES SNOW BOOTS LADIES ZIP WARM WATERPROOF FUR SKI HIGH UK LINED 1 Burgundy WOMENS MUCKER SIZE xlink:href="#background"/>
         xlink:href="#foreground"
             fill="yellow" stroke="green" opacity="0.5" /> 
         y="-35">opacity="0.5"SIZE ZIP WINTER LINED WOMENS 1 KIDS FUR WARM SNOW WATERPROOF GIRLS MUCKER UK WELLINGTON SKI Burgundy BOOTS LADIES WELLIES HIGH 5 Brown KNEE 
    
     width="100" height="100" x="100" y="100"
         viewBox="-40,-45 80,80">
         xlink:href="#background"/>
         xlink:href="#foreground"
             fill="rgba(100%, 100%, 0%, 0.5)"
             stroke="rgba(0%, 50%, 0%, 0.5)" Boots Brown Ankle 16 Rucoline Agile Women Taupe By 2621 0IqwnPzX/>BOOTS GIRLS MUCKER 5 WELLIES Burgundy SNOW FUR KNEE LINED SKI WARM WATERPROOF KIDS 1 LADIES WINTER ZIP Brown WELLINGTON HIGH WOMENS SIZE UK  y="-35">rgba(r,g,b,0.5) colors
    
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The reused shapes are predefined in a section. The background ellipse has all its painting properties defined as presentation attributes.

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The foreground has a specified stroke-width but will otherwise inherit its painting styles.

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